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Despite historical failure trends and mixed results on the effectiveness of online learning for all students, schools are witnessing the continual emergence of electronic instructional mediums. Research shows that students from educationally underserved homes experience less parent involvement (Hill and Tyson, 2009; Smith, 2006), and less academic gains than students from higher social economic families (Smith 2006). With the rapid infusion of online learning in traditional learning environments, some may perceive less need for parental guidance and intervention, however research shows that online learning may actually require parents to shoulder an increasing instructional role in their child’s learning (Borup, Graham, and Davies, 2013; Liu, Black, Algina, Cavanaugh, and Dawson, 2010). This quantitative study examines the relationships between online learning, socioeconomic status, and parental understanding and involvement in a diverse k – 12 district. Findings show that relationships exist between these variables, calling into question the development, implementation and evaluation of such instruction for populations already at risk.

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Chen, T., Wanberg, R. C., Gouioa, E. T., Brown, M. J. S., Chen, J. C.-Y., & Kurt Kraiger, J. J. (2019). Engaging parents Involvement in K – 12 Online Learning Settings: Are We Meeting the Needs of Underserved Students?. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 15(2).