Main Article Content


This study aims to investigate the level of utilization of online learning in kindergartens in Jordan during the covid-19 pandemic from the teachers’ point of view. The study sample consists of 225 female teachers from both public and private schools in Jordan. To collect data, a survey was developed and implemented to the study sample after obtaining its validity and reliability. The survey intended to measure three dimensions (teaching, communication, and technological competencies). The results have shown that the mean scores of the level of utilization of online learning in kindergartens during the covid-19 pandemic from a teachers’ point of view were moderate and it also showed statistical differences in the level of utilization of online learning attributed to the type of school in favor of private schools. A correlation between the number of years of expertise and both academic qualification and private education was also noticed.


Early Childhood Kindergartens Jordanian Children Online Learning Covid 19

Article Details

Author Biographies

Maha Yousef Abu-Rabba', Ministry of Education/ Jordan

Teacher at the ministry of education - Jordan

Ayat Mohaamed Al-Mughrabib, Middle East University

Assistant professor of science education, Middle East Universiry- Jordan

How to Cite
Abu-Rabba’, M. Y., Al-Mughrabib, A. M., & Al-Awidi, H. M. (2021). Online learning in the Jordanian kindergartens during Covid-19 ‏pandemic. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 17(3), 59-69.


  1. Abubakar, S. R., Sahriana, N., Hidayat, A., Pabunga, D. B., & Hidayah, A. N. (2020). Management of Learning from Home Program in Kindergarten. In 2nd International Conference Innovation in Education, Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 504, 361-364.
  2. Alezra, F. (2021). Far from the Eyes, Close to the Heart? The Attitude of Kindergarten Teachers to Distance Learning in Kindergartens in Israel, Rocznik Pedagogiczny, 43, 117-136.
  3. Alkhawaldeh, M., Hyassat, M., Al-Zboon, E., & Ahmad, J. (2017). The role of computer technology in supporting children’s learning in Jordanian early years education. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 31(3), 419- 429.
  4. Arthur-Nyarko, E., Agyei, D. D., & Armah, J. K. (2020). Digitizing distance learning materials: Measuring students’ readiness and intended challenges. Education and Information Technologies, 1-16.
  5. Bani Hani, A., et al. (2021). Medical students and risk of COVID-19 infection: A descriptive cross-sectional study from the University of Jordan. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 70,102775.
  6. Barnett, W.S., & Jung, K. (2020). Understanding and responding to the pandemic’s impacts on preschool education: What can we learn from last spring? New Brunswick, NJ: NIEER.
  7. Bigatel, P. M., Ragan, L. C., Kennan, S., May, J., & Redmond, B. F. (2012). The identification of competencies for online teaching success. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(1), 59-77.
  8. Bonal, X. & González, S. (2020). The impact of lockdown on the learning gap: family and school divisions in times of crisis. International Review of Education, 66, 635–655.
  9. Brinks, V., & Ibert, O. (2020). From corona virus to corona crisis: The value of an analytical and geographical understanding of crisis. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 111(3), 275-287.
  10. Campana, K., Mills, E., Hainees, C., Prendergast, T., & Martens, M. (2019). To Tech or Not to Tech? The Debate about Technology, Young Children, and the Library. Children and Libraries: The Journal of ALSC, 17 (2), 20-26.
  11. Dong, C. (2016). Young children’s use of ICT in Shanghai preschools. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, 10(3), 97-123.
  12. Dong, C., & Mertala, P. (2019). It is a tool, but not a ‘must’: Early childhood preservice teachers’ perceptions of ICT and its affordances. Early Years, 1–16.
  13. Edwards, S., Mantilla, A., Henderson, M., Nolan, A., Skouteris, H., & Plowman, L. (2018). Teacher practices for building young children’s concepts of the internet through play-based learning. Educational Practice and Theory, 40(1), 29–50.
  14. Fayez, F., Ahmad, J., & Oliemat, E. (2016) Jordanian Kindergarten and 1st-Grade Teachers’ Beliefs About Child-Based Dimensions of School Readiness. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 30(3), 293-305
  15. Ferraro, F. V., Ambra, F. I., Aruta, L., & Iavarone, M. L. (2020). Distance Learning in the COVID-19 Era: Perceptions in Southern Italy. Education Sciences, 10(12), 355.
  16. Ferreira, J., Behrens, M., Torres, P., & Marriott, R. (2018). The Necessary Knowledge for Online Education: Teaching and Learning to Produce Knowledge. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(6), 2097-2106.
  17. Ferri, F., Grifoni, P., & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency Societies, 10(4), 84-96.
  18. Foti, P. (2020). Research in Distance Learning in Greek Kindergarten Schools during the Pandemic of Covid-19 Possibilities, Dilemmas, Limitations. European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies, 5(1), 19-40.
  19. Gayatri, M. (2020). The Implementation of Early Childhood Education in The Time Of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 8( 6),46-54 46
  20. Griebling, S., & Gilbert, J. (2020). Examining the Value of a Summer Kindergarten Transitioning Program for Children, Families, and Schools. School Community Journal, 30(1), 191-208.
  21. Gupta, S., & Gupta, M. (200). Technology and E-Learning in Higher Education. Technology, 29(4), 1320-1325.
  22. Kara, N., & Cagiltay, K. (2017). In-service Preschool Teachers’ Thoughts about Technology and Technology Use in Early Educational Settings, CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2017, 8(2), 119-141.
  23. Keengwe, J., & Onchwari, G. (2009). Technology and early childhood education: A technology integration professional development model for practicing teachers. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(3), 209–218.
  24. Kim, J. (2020). Learning and teaching online during Covid-19: Experiences of student teachers in an early childhood education practicum. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52(2), 145-158.
  25. Koçoglu, E., & Tekdal, D. (2020). Analysis of Online learning Activities Conducted during COVID-19 Pandemic. Educational Research and Reviews, 15(9), 536-543.
  26. Mahyoob, M. (2020). Challenges of e-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Experienced by EFL Learners. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 11(4) 351-362.
  27. Manches, A., & Plowman, L. (2017). Computing education in children’s early years: A call for debate. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(1), 191–201.
  28. Markova, T., Glazkova, I., & Zaborova, E. (2017). Quality issues of online distance learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 685-691.
  29. Nuraini, N. S., Qihua, S., Venatius, A. S., Slamet, T. I., & Cholifah, P. S. (2020). Distance Learning Strategy in Covid-19 Pandemic for Primary Schools. International Webinar Series-Educational Revolution in Post Covid Era, 107-116.
  30. OECD (2020). Building a high-quality early childhood education and care workforce: Further results from the starting strong survey 2018. Paris: TALIS, OECD Publishing.
  31. Sari, T., & Nayır, F. (2020). Challenges in Online learning During the (Covid-19) Pandemic Period. Qualitative Research in Education, 9(3), 328-360.
  32. Themeli, C., Bougia, A. (2016). Tele-proximity: Tele-community of inquiry model. Facial cues for social, cognitive, and teacher presence in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning: IRRODL, 17(6), 145-163.
  33. Unicef (2020). The Middle East and North Africa out-of-school children initiative Jordan country report on out-of-school children.
  34. United Nations (UN) (2020). Policy brief: Education during COVID19 and beyond. policy_brief_covid-19_and_education_august_2020.pdf
  35. Van Overmeire, R. (2020). The myth of psychological debriefings during the corona pandemic. Journal of Global Health, 10(2).
  36. World Health Organization (2020). Key Messages and Actions for COVID-19 Prevention and Control in Schools, visited on 4/12/2020, available at:
  37. Yıldırım, B. (2021). Preschool education in Turkey during the Covid-19 pandemic: A phenomenological study. Early Childhood Education Journal.