Main Article Content
Modern learning frameworks take advantage of the interconnection among individuals, multimedia artifacts, places, events, and physical objects. In this perspective, smart cities are primary providers of data, learning stimuli and realistic hands-on laboratories. Unfortunately, the development of smart-city-enabled learning frameworks leads to many privacy and security risks since they are built on top of IoT nodes, wireless sensors networks and cyber-physical systems. To efficiently address such issues, a suitable holistic approach is needed, especially to reveal the interdependence between different actors, e.g., cloud infrastructures, resource-constrained devices and big data sources. Therefore, this paper introduces a model to help the engineering of novel learning frameworks for smart cities by enlightening the problem space characterizing security.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The author declares that the submitted to Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society (Je-LKS) is original and that is has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
The author agrees that SIe-L (Italian Society of e-Learning) has the right to publish the material sent for inclusion in the journal Je-LKS.
The author agree that articles may be published in digital format (on the Internet or on any digital support and media) and in printed format, including future re-editions, in any language and in any license including proprietary licenses, creative commons license or open access license. SIe-L may also use parts of the work to advertise and promote the publication.
The author declares s/he has all the necessary rights to authorize the editor and SIe-L to publish the work.
The author assures that the publication of the work in no way infringes the rights of third parties, nor violates any penal norms and absolves SIe-L from all damages and costs which may result from publication.
The author declares further s/he has received written permission without limits of time, territory, or language from the rights holders for the free use of all images and parts of works still covered by copyright, without any cost or expenses to SIe-L.
For all the information please check the Ethical Code of Je-LKS, available at http://www.je-lks.org/index.php/ethical-code
- Aldowah, H., Rehman, S.U., Ghazal, S., and Umar, I.N. (2017). Internet of Things in higher education: a study on future learning. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 892(1), 12-17.
- Ali, M., Bilal, H.S. M., Razzaq, M.A., Khan, J., Lee, S., Idris, M., ... & Kang, B.H. (2017). IoTFLiP: IoT-based flipped learning platform for medical education. Digital Communications and Networks, 3(3), 188-194.
- Allwinkle, S. and Cruickshank, P. (2011). Creating smart-er cities: an overview. Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 1-16.
- Anwar, M.M., Greer, J., and Brooks, C.A. (2006). Privacy enhanced personalization in e-learning. In Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust: Bridge the Gap Between PST Technologies and Business Services.
- Anwar, M. and Greer, J. (2012). Facilitating trust in privacy-preserving e-learning environments. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 5(1), 62-73.
- Arpaci, I., Kilicer, K. and Bardakci, S. (2015). Effects of security and privacy concerns on educational use of cloud services. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 93-98.
- Bartoli, A., Hernández-Serrano, J., Soriano, M., Dohler, M., Kountouris, A., and Barthel, D. (2011). Security and privacy in your smart city. In Proceedings of the Barcelona smart cities congress, 292.
- Bdiwi, R., de Runz, C., Faiz, S., and Cherif, A.A. (2018). A blockchain based decentralized platform for ubiquitous learning environment. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 90-92.
- Bellekens, X., Hamilton, A., Seeam, P., Nieradzinska, K., Franssen, Q., and Seeam, A. (2016). Pervasive eHealth services a security and privacy risk awareness survey. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA), 1-4.
- Bertino, E. and Ferrari, E. (2018). Big data security and privacy. In A Comprehensive Guide Through the Italian Database Research Over the Last 25 Years, 425-439, Springer, Cham.
- Bonneau, J. (2012, May). The science of guessing: analyzing an anonymized corpus of 70 million passwords. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), 538-552.
- Borcea, K., Donker, H., Franz, E., Pfitzmann, A., and Wahrig, H. (2005, May). Towards privacy-aware elearning. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, 167-178.
- Cabaj, K., Caviglione, L., Mazurczyk, W., Wendzel, S., Woodward, A., and Zander, S. (2018). The new threats of information hiding: the road ahead. IT Professional, 20(3), 31-39.
- Caviglione, L. and Coccoli, M. (2018). Smart e-learning systems with big data. International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, 64(4), 445-450.
- Caviglione, L., Gaggero, M., Cambiaso, E., and Aiello, M. (2017). Measuring the energy consumption of cyber security. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(7), 58-63.
- Caviglione, L., Coccoli, M., and Merlo, A. (2014). A taxonomy-based model of security and privacy in online social networks. International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering, 9(4), 325-338.
- Caviglione, L., Coccoli, M., and Gianuzzi, V. (2011). Opportunities, integration and issues of applying new technologies over e-learning platforms. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Next Generation Networks and Services (NGNS), 12-17.
- Caviglione, L., Coccoli, M., and Grosso, A. (2011). A framework for the delivery of contents in RFID-driven smart environments. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID Technologies and Applications, 45–49.
- Caviglione, L. (2009). Can satellites face trends? The case of Web 2.0. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications, 446–450.
- Caviglione, L. (2006). Introducing emergent technologies in tactical and disaster recovery networks. International Journal of Communication Systems, 19(9), 1045-1062.
- Coccoli, M., Maresca, P., and Stanganelli, L. (2017). The role of big data and cognitive computing in the learning process. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 38(1), 97–103.
- Coccoli, M. and Torre I. (2014). Interacting with annotated objects in a semantic web of things application. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 25(6), 1012–1020.
- Coccoli, M., Maresca, P., Stanganelli, L., and Guercio, A. (2015). An experience of collaboration using a PaaS for the smarter university model. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 31, 275–282.
- Demchenko, Y., Grosso, P., De Laat, C., and Membrey, P. (2013). Addressing big data issues in scientific data infrastructure. In Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS), 48-55.
- Dragoni, N., Giaretta, A., and Mazzara, M. (2016). The Internet of hackable things. In Proceedings of the International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, 129-140.
- Farhan, M., Jabbar, S., Aslam, M., Hammoudeh, M., Ahmad, M., Khalid, S., and Han, K. (2018). IoT-based students interaction framework using attention-scoring assessment in e-learning. Future Generation Computer Systems, 79, 909-919.
- Fernández, A., Peralta, D., Benítez, J. M., and Herrera, F. (2014). E-learning and educational data mining in cloud computing: an overview. International Journal of Learning Technology, 9(1), 25-52.
- Ganti, R.K., Ye, F., and Lei, H. (2011). Mobile crowdsensing: current state and future challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(11), 32-39.
- Gharaibeh, A., Salahuddin, M. A., Hussini, S. J., Khreishah, A., Khalil, I., Guizani, M., and Al-Fuqaha, A. (2017). Smart cities: a survey on data management, security, and enabling technologies. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 19(4), 2456-2501.
- Guadagni, F., Scarpato, N., Patrizia, F., D’Ottavi, G., Boavida, F., Roselli, M., ... and Lisi, A. (2015). Personal and sensitive data in the e-health-IoT universe. In International Internet of Things Summit, 504-514.
- Hashem, I. A. T., Chang, V., Anuar, N. B., Adewole, K., Yaqoob, I., Gani, A., ... & Chiroma, H. (2016). The role of big data in smart city. International Journal of Information Management, 36(5), 748-758.
- Heath, J. (2014). Contemporary privacy theory contributions to learning analytics. Journal of Learning Analytics, 1(1), 140-149.
- Humayed, A., Lin, J., Li, F., and Luo, B. (2017). Cyber-physical systems security - A survey. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4(6), 1802-1831.
- Jeong, J.S., Kim, M., and Yoo, K.H. (2013). A content oriented smart education system based on cloud computing. International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 8(6), 313-328.
- Kambourakis, G. (2013). Security and privacy in m-learning and beyond: challenges and state of the art. International Journal of u-and e-Service, Science and Technology, 6(3), 67-84.
- Kang, B.H. and Kim, H. (2015). Proposal: a design of e-learning user authentication system. International Journal of Security and Its Applications, 9(1), 45-50.
- Manca, S., Caviglione, L., and Raffaghelli, J. (2016). Big data for social media learning analytics: potentials and challenges. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 12(2), 27-39.
- Marais, E., Argles, D., and von Solms, B. (2006). Security issues specific to e-assessments. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference on WWW Applications.
- Miguel, J., Caballé, S., and Prieto, J. (2012). Providing security to computer-supported collaborative learning: an overview. In Proceedings of the 2012 4th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems (INCoS), 97-104.
- Miller, K.W., Voas, J., and Hurlburt, G.F. (2012). BYOD: security and privacy considerations. It Professional, 14(5), 53-55.
- Neila, R. and Rabai, L.B.A. (2014). Deploying suitable countermeasures to solve the security problems within an e-learning environment. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks, 33-38.
- Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., and Oliveira, A. (2011). Smart cities and the future Internet: Towards cooperation frameworks for open innovation. In The future Internet assembly, 431-446. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
- Ten, C.W., Manimaran, G., and Liu, C.C. (2010). Cybersecurity for critical infrastructures: attack and defense modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 40(4), 853-865.
- Wendzel, S., Mazurczyk, W., Caviglione, L., and Meier, M. (2014). Hidden and uncontrolled - On the emergence of network steganographic threats. In ISSE 2014 Securing Electronic Business Processes, 123-133. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden.
- Wilkowska, W., & Ziefle, M. (2011). Perception of privacy and security for acceptance of e-health technologies: exploratory analysis for diverse user groups. In Proceedings of the 2011 5th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 593-600.
- Zuev, V. I. (2012). E-learning security models. Management Information Systems, 7(2), 024-028.