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Augmented reality (AR) has been gaining attention in the field of education due to its potential to enhance learning experiences. However, the use of AR in education is still relatively new, and empirical studies examining its effectiveness are limited. This review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the methodological considerations in empirical studies that have investigated the use of AR in education. In this paper, 23 articles out of 134 articles were gathered from publishers database including Scopus, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor Francis, and Web of Science outlaying the detailed analysis of knowledge-based tests and methodologies essential for studying AR in education. The review paper further highlights the challenges and limitations of conducting such studies and also examines the outcomes and implications of empirical studies to date, providing insights into the effectiveness of AR in STEM courses. The analysis revealed that engineering education is more extensively explored compared to architecture. Additionally, mobile-based devices and AR marker-based technology are more commonly used in current studies than other AR-based devices and technologies, while probability sampling technique and pretest and post-test evaluation technique are more frequently followed by authors. Thus, based on the findings, the paper concludes with recommendations for future research directions and methodological considerations to be taken into account in empirical studies of AR in education. This review aims to provide a valuable resource for researchers and educators interested in incorporating AR technology in educational settings.
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