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The demand for an increasingly differentiated education, which takes into account the individual differences of children to stimulate effective learning, accompanies the introduction of new technologies at school. Amongst these, the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB), which allows multimodality and sharing of contents, is one of the most widespread tools in schools. The aim of the study was to test with a sample of primary school children the impact of a teaching session with the use of the IWB (vs. traditional lessons) on knowledge performance. In addition, we were interested in investigating the role of metacognition as a potential moderator on learning effects. Our results revealed an advantage of IWB use in learning achievement. Notably, the increase in learning outcomes only occurred among children with low metacognitive skills. This shows that new technologies can play an important role both per se and in supporting learning processes, especially of less metacognitive students, therefore contributing to reduce the gap between children with differential metacognitive skills. The results are analyzed in light of the important role in the nowadays world of Information and Communication Technologies, which can become an extremely relevant and appealing educational and cultural compensation tool.
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