Main Article Content
Facebook, as a social networking site, is one of the most important means of communication technologies that have been widely adopted by college students and their professors worldwide. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the impact of Facebook on higher education generally and specifically on the academic performance of the students of the University of Jordan. For the completion of this study, the researchers selected a random sample of students from the University of Jordan and gave them a questionnaire on how Facebook affected their academic performance. The collected data was analyzed and tested by using correlation tests through SPSS, a data analysis program. The independent variable measured: 1- communication among students and communication between them and the faculty members; 2- sharing of resources and materials; 3- and collaboration among students. The academic achievement of students was measured by examinations and/or by continuous assessment such as (their GPAs, overuse or multitasking, and the time they spend on studying). Three pre-determined hypotheses tested are: (H1) Communication through Facebook has no significant impact on students’ academic performance. (H2) The sharing of educational resources and materials through Facebook does not significantly influence students’ academic performance. (H3) Collaboration among students through Facebook has no significant influence on their academic performance.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The author declares that the submitted to Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society (Je-LKS) is original and that is has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
The author agrees that SIe-L (Italian Society of e-Learning) has the right to publish the material sent for inclusion in the journal Je-LKS.
The author agree that articles may be published in digital format (on the Internet or on any digital support and media) and in printed format, including future re-editions, in any language and in any license including proprietary licenses, creative commons license or open access license. SIe-L may also use parts of the work to advertise and promote the publication.
The author declares s/he has all the necessary rights to authorize the editor and SIe-L to publish the work.
The author assures that the publication of the work in no way infringes the rights of third parties, nor violates any penal norms and absolves SIe-L from all damages and costs which may result from publication.
The author declares further s/he has received written permission without limits of time, territory, or language from the rights holders for the free use of all images and parts of works still covered by copyright, without any cost or expenses to SIe-L.
For all the information please check the Ethical Code of Je-LKS, available at http://www.je-lks.org/index.php/ethical-code
- Ajjan, H. & Hartshorne, R. (2008). Investigating faculty decisions to adopt Web 2.0 technologies: Theory and empirical tests. Internet and Higher Education 11, 71-80.
- Almenara, J. C., Arancibia, M. L., & Prete, A. D. (2019). Technical and Didactic Knowledge of the Moodle LMS in Higher Education. Beyond Functional Use. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 8(1), 25-33.
- Al-Rahmi, W. M. & Othman, M. SH. (2012). The Impact of Social Media use on Academic Performance among university students: A Pilot Study. Journal of Information Systems Research and Innovation: //seminar.utmspace.edu.my/jisri/
- Amador, P. V., & Amador, J. M. (2017). Academic Help Seeking: a Framework for Conceptualizing Facebook Use for Higher Education Support. Association for Educational Communications & Technology 61, 195-202.
- Arteaga, R., Cortijo, V., & Javed, U. (2014). Students’ perceptions of Facebook for academic purposes. Computers & Education, 70, 138-149.
- Astin, A. W. (1984). Student Involvement: A Development Theory for Higher Education. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 518-529.
- Boogart, M. R. V. (2006). Uncovering the social impacts of Facebook on a college campus. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kansas State University.
- Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 210–230.
- Burak, L. (2012). Multitasking in the University Classroom. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol.6: No. 2, Article 8.
- Burbary, K., (2011). Retrieved 2011, from https://www.kenburbary.com/2011/03/facebook-demographics-revisited-2011- statistics-2/
- Butler, A. C. (2010). Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(5), 1118–1133. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019902
- Cavus, N., Sani, A.S., Haruna, Y., & Lawan, A.A. (2021). Efficacy of Social Networking Sites for Sustainable Education in the Era of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Sustainability, 13, 808. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020808
- Chapman, A.L. & Marich, H. (2020). Using Twitter for Civic Education in K-12 Classrooms. TechTrends, 65(1), 51-61.
- Chen, T., Peng, L., Jing, B., Wu, C., Yang, J., & Cong, G. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on user experience with online education platforms in China. Sustainability, 12, 7329.
- Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F., (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).
- Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. & Warshaw, P.R., (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.
- Ekahitanond, V. (2018). The Impact of Feedback in Facebook on Students’ Language Proficiency. TEM Journal, 7(3), 686-692.
- Ellis, Y., Daniels, B., & Jauregui, A. (2010). The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 8. Retrieved from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10498.pdf
- Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Beneﬁts of Facebook ‘‘Friends:’’ Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143–1168.
- Golub, T. L. & Miloloža, M. (2011). Facebook, Academic Performance, Multitasking and Self-Esteem. University of Zagreb, Croatia.
- Greenhow, C., & Chapman, A. (2020). Social distancing meet social media: digital tools for connecting students, teachers, and citizens in an emergency. Information and Learning Sciences, 121 (5/6), 341-352.
- Hansen, D. L., Rotman, D., Bonsignore, E., E., Milic-Frayling, N., Rodrigues, E. M., Smith, M., & Shneiderman, B., (2012). Do You Know the Way to SNA?: A Process Model for Analyzing and Visualizing Social Media Network Data. International Conference on Social Informatics. DOI: 10.1109/SocialInformatics.2012.26.
- Hew, K. F. (2011). Students’ and Teachers’ Use of Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 662-676.
- Junco, R. (2011). The Relationship Between Frequency of Facebook Use, Participation in Facebook Activities, and Student Engagement. Computers & Education, 58, 162-171.
- Junco, R. & Cotten, S. R. (2012). No A 4 U: The relationship between multitasking and academic performance. Computers & Education, 59, 505-514.
- Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J., (2011). The Relationship between Facebook and the Well-Being of Undergraduate College Students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14 (4).
- Karpinski, A.C., & Duberstein, A. (2009). A description of Facebook use and academic performance among undergraduates and graduate students. Poster sessions presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, California.
- Kieras, D. E., Meyer, D. E., Ballas, J. A., & Lauber, E. J., (2000). Modern Computational Perspectives on Executive Mental Processes and Cognitive Control: Where to form here? Control of Cognitive Processes. Attention and Performance XVIII (pp.681-712). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Kirschner, A. P. & Karpinski, C. A. (2010). Facebook and academic performance. Computers in human behavior, 26, 1237-1245.
- Kolek, E., & Saunders, D., (2008). Online Disclosure: An Empirical Examination of Undergraduate Facebook Profiles. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 45(1):1-25
- Liu, I.-F. & Hung, H.-C. (2020). How are live-streaming services and social media platforms changing on-job MBA students’ learning? A case study for applying e-case live in management case-based learning in Taiwan. IEEE Access, 8, 120936-120945.
- Lockyer, L., & Patterson, J., (2008). Integrating Social Networking Technologies in Education: A Case Study of a Formal Learning Environment. Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
- Luo, T., Murray, A., & Crompton, H., (2017). Designing authentic learning activities to train pre-service teachers about teaching online. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 18(7), 141-157.
- Mahmood, Q. K., Zakar, R., & Zakar, M. Z., (2018). Role of Facebook use in predicting bridging and bonding social capital of Pakistani university students. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, DOI:10.1080/10911359.2018.1466750
- Mazman, S. G., & Usluel, Y. K., (2010). Modeling educational usage of Facebook. Computers & Education, 55, 444-453.
- Meyers, S. A. (2004). The relationship between perceived instructor credibility and col-lege student in-class and out-of-class communication. Communication Reports, 17, 130-137.
- Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, limitations and recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pak. J. Med. Sci., 36, 27-31.
- Paolini, A. (2015). Enhancing Teaching Effectiveness and Student Learning Outcomes. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 15(1), 20-33.
- Pasek, J., More, & Hargittai, E. (2009). Facebook and Academic Performance: Reconciling a Media Sensation with Data. First Monday, 14 (5- 4).
- Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 227-238.
- Peruta A., & Shields, A. B., (2017). Social media in higher education: understanding how colleges and universities use Facebook. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 27(1), 131-143.
- Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th Ed.). New York: Free Press
- Rosen, L. D., Lim, A. F., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2011). An empirical examination of the educational impact of text message-induced task switching in the classroom: educational implications and strategies to enhance learning. Psicologia Educativa, 17(2), 163-177.
- Rouis, S., Limayem, M., & Salehi-Sangari, E. (2011). Impact of Facebook Usage on Students’ Academic Achievement: Roles of Self-Regulation and Trust. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(3), 961-994.
- Sá, M.J., & Serpa, S. (2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity to Foster the Sustainable Development of Teaching in Higher Education. Sustainability, 12, 8525.
- Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R., (2013). Research Methods for Business (6th Ed.). Hohn Wiley and Sons, Inc.
- Selwyn, N. (2009). Faceworking: exploring students’ education-related use of Facebook. Learning, Media and Technology, 34(2), 157-174.
- Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5
- Sweller, J., Kirschner, P., & Clark, R. E., (2007). Why Minimally Guided Teaching Techniques Do Not Work: A Reply to Commentaries. Educational Psychologist, 42(2):115-121, DOI: 10.1080/00461520701263426
- The website of the University of Jordan. (2020). Retrieved 2020, from http://ju.edu.jo/home.aspx#
- Thompson, R., Higgins, C., & Howell, Wood, E., Zivcakova, L., Gentile, P., & Archer, K., (2012). Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning. Computers & Education 58(1), 365-374.
- Wood, E., Zivcakova, L., Gentile, P., & Archer, K., (2012). Examining the Impact of off-Task Multi-tasking with Technology on Real-Time Classroom Learning. Computers & Education, 58(1), 365-374.