Main Article Content
In the networked society era, more research on students’ digital citizenship levels has been conducted and reported. However, rarely is this topic covered from third-world countries, which have seen significant increases in the numbers of Internet users. Seeking to examine digital citizenship levels in Indonesian students, this study employed the non-experimental quantitative research design with an online questionnaire distributed to a total of 581 students. The data collected were analyzed using Rasch Model measurement and Winsteps 5.1.2 software. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate students’ digital literacy readiness in terms of knowledge and understanding in accessing technology and the Internet, while Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was utilized to identify digital citizenship levels based on demographic profile. The findings showed that students had high levels of readiness in relation to Internet skills, Internet attitudes, computer self-efficacy, and three digital citizenship sub-scales. More in-depth analysis indicated the presence of differences in students’ digital citizenship levels by gender, parents’ education level, and Internet use frequency. It is hoped that this research will expand literature concerning digital citizenship as a reference for future research works and for policymakers, particularly in developing countries.
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